Enter your information and a sales colleague will be in contact with you soon to discuss your paid magazine subscription.
Thank you for subscribing to our magazine. We are just just processing your request....
The Journal for Employee Protection
The Journal for Employee Protection
In this whitepaper, Will Allum; Fixed Product Manager from Crowcon Detection Instruments Ltd, talks about some of the key reasons why sample systems should be more widely used and highlights customers who use sample systems rather than traditional point systems.
Sample systems explained
It is probably safe to say that sample systems are a ‘best kept secret’ in the gas
Frequent down-time due to gas detection faults, the need to prematurely
replace sensors due to damage and the impact of other gases or processes
on the accuracy of gas detector outputs, are all daily concerns for production
and instrumentation teams who maybe do not know that a well-designed
sample system could improve efficiency and help manage costs.
Sample systems provide reliable detection in hot, humid, cold or dusty
environments. They draw a sample from the environment to be monitored and
most importantly condition that sample to ensure it is suitable for the sensing
element to monitor. This means the system can be located away from the area
being monitored, to a more suitable or convenient location to view, service and
maintain the detector head, helping to keep operators safe. This can avoid false
alarms from failing sensors and reduce system downtime as well as saving an
operator’s time having to rectify issues. A sample system can be configured
to detect gases on site. For example, in a paint drying booth detection of
gas by the sample system could action an automatic shutdown of gas into
the burners to avoid further exposure. On some sites, a ventilation system
could be set into motion when triggered by sample system detecting gas.
There is a variety of sample systems on the market; some which use pumps
or compressed air-driven vacuum pumps to extract air/gas samples from the
area to be monitored and present the samples to one or more gas sensors.
To find out more about sampling systems on our website just visit www.crowcon.com/products/sampling-systems-for-gas-detection/
A sample system uses a draw technique to bring an air sample from a remote point to a gas detector. There are various configurations that can be tailored, built and installed to do this:
These different sample system options are
versatile and can be tailored to site requirements,
making them suitable for multiple applications
across a wide range of industries.
A single point sample system generally uses a main
operated pump to draw a sample, up to 1km away.
The sample enters the system via a sample valve and is
filtered to remove contaminated particles/containments
and water before being passed as a controlled flow to
the detector heads (between one and four detectors).
The gas samples are analysed, and low and high alarm conditions are reported. A programmable relay, housed in the sample system cabinet, will control the sampling and purging sequence. The programmable relay offers the facility for visual integration of the sample system condition via an LCD display mounted on the front of the enclosure. The display shows operational parameters such as sampling, purging and system fault fail.
A single point system is effective when there is a
requirement for CH4 fuel leak monitoring on heaters
in paint drying systems. A simple, open-plate system
using a pellistor or IR sensor is ideal for this application
as it is a high temperature application which needs
stainless steel sample pipes and potentially, cooling
coils. Water vapour is also present; evaporated from
water-based paints, so water filtration is essential.
Systems have also been supplied for monitoring
flammable risk from paint solvent vapours.
A multi point sample system is made up of several single
point systems mounted into one enclosure. The control
panel depends on the number of detectors per system
and the number of systems. Multi-point sample systems
are used to support environmental chamber monitoring.
Sample lines are placed in chambers to monitor CO
accumulation from vehicle exhausts fuel leaks present
a flammable risk and so petrol vapour sensors can be
incorporated into the system. Environmental chambers can
get very hot or cold, and so stainless steel sample tubes
with trace heating to prevent freezing may be necessary.
A sequential sample system operates the same as the single
point. However, it can also monitor up to 32 different sample
points. Each sample point is connected to a sample valve.
The programmable relay opens each valve in turn and a gas
sample from that sample point is passed over the detectors.
Sequential sample systems utilise a double headed pump.
One pump is used as the sample pump and the other to draw
on lines not being monitored. This means a fresh sample can
be presented to the detectors when the line is monitored.
This system is ideal for monitoring pumping shafts and
wet-wells on clean and wastewater ring-mains and road
storm drains. Sample tubes are placed at various heights
within shafts that can be 20-125 metres deep. On wet
wells, sample systems have holes decreasing in diameter
from the bottom to prevent blockage/flow-fail if the water
level rises. Sample lines remove the need for a person to
access the shaft for general detector calibration/maintenance
which makes this method suitable for water companies.
Systems may incorporate EN-54 certified fire panels to monitor
smoke and heat detectors and are typically unmanned sites.
The aspirator system continuously ‘samples’ and is the
only system that can be used directly within a hazardous
environment. Instead of a pump to draw the sample an
eductor is used. The eductor is driven by compressed
air to create a negative pressure to draw the sample.
The only electrical devices fitted are a sensor and an I.S flow
fail device. The detector or flow switch can be wired into a
flame proof enclosure. This can be either mounted above the
sample cabinet containing terminals and barriers, or directly
onto a control panel in a safe area, via any necessary barriers.
In the case of a turbine, high temperature gas detectors
are often fitted directly within a turbine enclosure. This
presents a problem with calibration as the turbine needs
to be shut down to allow the engineer access.
The aspirated sample system solution can be maintained without entering an enclosure. This makes the aspirated sample system ideal for gas turbine manufacturers.
This is also an ex certified option which can be mounted
outside the turbine enclosure (usually an Ex Zone)
to keep sample tube runs as short as possible.
This overcomes the main disadvantage of air aspirated
systems, which is response time, as the sample flow rate is
limited to the maximum the sensor can tolerate: one metre
Ex certification is achieved using certified electrical components: Ex flow meters (with flow-fail monitors) and local terminals and galvanic Isolator (for the flow-fail coils) within an Ex certified enclosure. Detectors such as Crowcon’s Xgard range and Xgard Bright Flamgard are ideal solutions for this.
Learn more about Crowcon’s sample systems with our summary videos, and more on our site at www.crowcon.
Coal used in the combustion process is delivered to a power station and unloaded into hoppers before being transported, by conveyor, to the coal silos for storage. Coal is passed by the feeder to the mill which pulverises the coal and is carried by forced ventilation fans through the classifier. The classifier grades the coal allowing only finely pulverised coal to pass through to the burners for combustion. It returns larger particles to the mill to be pulverised further.
In all these areas there is a real risk of spontaneous
combustion of coal dust deposits.
Prior to combustion smouldering occurs which
results in detectable levels of carbon monoxide.
At this stage there is no fire and so preventative
action can be taken (such as steam/nitrogen
inerting) at the operator’s discretion.
Fire detection is further implemented by positioning
thermocouples at strategic locations throughout the plant.
The thermocouples provide direct information including
increases in temperature due to the presence of a fire.
Single or multi-point systems for monitoring probes are placed
in these areas and CO alarms are typically set to 50/100ppm.
This application is extremely harsh, particularly in the coal
mills and so a hardened probe with a removable filter to
provide long-term reliable performance is recommended.
Contact the Crowcon team on firstname.lastname@example.org or +44 (0)1235 557700 to learn more about how sample systems could keep your people, your premises and your reputation safe.
As industries recognise the need to improve and ensure safe environments for workers, and HSE further tightens its safety regulations, methods such as Crowcon’s sample systems are likely to become the first-choice solution across industries using potentially hazardous gases.
Get in touch with Crowcon’s dedicated sample system team to discuss your requirements and find a solution to your gas detection challenge.
Tel: +44 (0) 1235 557700 Fax: +44 (0) 1235 557749 Email: email@example.com
Tel: +1 859 957 1039
Toll Free: 800-527-6926
Fax: +1 513 957-1044
Tel: +31 10 421 1232
Fax: +31 10 421 0542
Tel: +65 6745 2936
Fax: +65 6745 0467
Tel: +86 (0) 10 6787 0335
Fax: +86 (0) 10 6787 4879
Tel: +91 22 6708 0400
Fax: +91 22 6708 0405
Crowcon creates tailored, non-standard configurations for gas detection applications which people or gas detection sensors are unable to enter or
operate correctly. Crowcon has a dedicated team working with end users to implement the right solution for their environment. www.crowcon.com
Crowcon make gas detection instruments for oxygen, flammable and toxic gas hazards. Fixed gas detectors protect plant; portable gas monitors protect people; and control panels integrate gas detection into engineered fire and gas fixed systems.
Enter your information to receive news updates via email newsletters.
Terms & Conditions |
Copyright Bay Publishing