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The Journal for Employee Protection
The Journal for Employee Protection
Emergency safety showers and eye/face washes are special occupational
safety equipments designed to wash chemicals or toxic substances that come in
contact with skin, eyes or clothing, meeting the requirements of international
standards. Emergency showers can be defined as a first aid equipment that
should be used as a necessity for emergency response to reduce the effects of
accidents at a workplace. Since these are the products which are directly
related to human health, it is a necessity to produce them in accordance with
the relevant European and / or American standards and carry the markings of the
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has defined
it clearly what types of workplaces are required to have an emergency shower (Where
any person’s eyes or body may be exposed to harmful corrosive substances,
suitable facilities shall be provided for immediate use in the workplace for
immediate washing of eyes and body ”).
The second OSHA regulation in this area specifies certain industries
that should include emergency shower and eye/face wash equipment in each
facility. These industries include manufacturing of open surface tanks, storage
and handling of anhydrous ammonia, cellulose, paper and cardboard and other hazardous
In order to avoid the bad consequences of emergency situations in workplaces, factories, hospitals, laboratories where there are dangers such as heavy dust, chemicals or heat / flame, emergency showers should be kept in the working environment in accordance with the risk assessment.
The requirements and competencies of emergency shower and eye/face washes are specified in EN 15154 in Europe and ANSI / ISEA Z358.1-2014 in North America (generally accepted in the Middle East and non-European countries).
EN 15154-1 : Plumbed-in body showers for laboratories
EN 15154-2 : Plumbed-in eye wash units
EN 15154-3 : Non-plumbed safety shower for the body
EN 15154-4 : Non-plumbed safety shower for the eye
EN 15154-5 : Water overhead body showers for sites other than
The equipment defined as the only eye wash in the EN standard is
divided into two as eye / face wash and only eye wash in ANSI / ISEA
Z358.1-2014 standard. It can be said that an emergency shower meets the requirements
of OSHA if it has ANSI standard. The latest version of ANSI is 2014. We can say
that the ANSI standard requires more comprehensive and detailed requirements
than the requirements of the EN standard.
According to the ANSI standard, certain amounts of water flow for emergency showers, which must flow continuously for 15 minutes, are clearly determined (75.7 l / min for body shower, 1.5 l / min for eye wash, 11.4 l / min for eye / face wash). These flow rates must also be met if both the body shower and the eye or eye / face wash operate simultaneously.
Since there is no water network in each workplace, only emergency
showers connected to the mains water supply are not sufficient and enough and
cannot meet the requirements of the users. For this reason, it is necessary to
provide emergency showers with water tank with capacity that can provide 15
minutes of water flow which is required by ANSI standard.
More importantly, according to ANSI standards, the temperature of
clean, potable water supplied from the emergency shower must be maintained at
16-38 ° C in any climatic condition (regardless of whether it is installed
outside or inside of the building). In addition to that, the emergency shower
must always be ready to use in case of an emergency. The necessity of heating
the water in cold climates such as in Russia and cooling the water in hot
climates such as in Middle East is revealed in the emergency showers to be
installed in the plants. In other words, this situation reveals the necessity
of using a water tank again.
If we had to heat / cool the water instantly coming from an emergency
shower connected to the mains supply by an instant heater or cooler, we would
need to use very expensive equipments at high powers such as 100-150 kW, and it
would cause unnecessary electricity consumption and cost. This unnecessary
energy consumption would be valid even during the weekly maintenance of the
system, which is a requirement of the ANSI standard. For this reason, it is a
more economical and more efficient solution to heat / cool the water in a tank by
heater or coolers in smaller capacities and to keep the system ready for use in
The Importance and
Advantages of Tank Showers
The ANSI standard requires emergency showers to provide defined ”TEPID”
water for 15 minutes at a continuous temperature of 16-38 ° C. Occupational
health and safety experts or workplace authorities should now be aware that
they have no option to deliver cold water from the mains supply directly to the
If you have access to a suitable mains supply that provides the
correct flow rate, it is possible to install a plumbed-in emergency shower. However,
this type of an equipment will not provide TEPID water, and therefore must be
connected to a warm water network, or a tank shower must be used.
If both hot and cold mains supply are available in the facility, it is possible to provide warm water at the desired temperature without the need of a water tank thanks to special thermostatic mixing valves. All these alternative solutions are provided by the cooperation between the manufacturer and the end-user / distributor after determining the areas where emergency showers will be installed according to the structure of the facility.
Emergency showers are divided into two groups as plumbed-in type or non-plumbed
with water tank. Non-plumbed tank showers are preferred in the following cases:
• In case there is no mains supply in the facilities where the systems
will be installed,
• In case the emergency showers are installed at outdoor or in open
spaces without mains supply,
• In case of inadequate water pressure for emergency showers in the
existing mains supply,
• In case of interruptions at the existing mains supply,
• When there is a need to cool or heat water with low energy at high
or low ambient temperatures to keep water ready to use at a temperature of
16-38 ° C, which is required by standards.
in hot climates, the temperatures of the water in the water tank exposed to the
sun and the pipes of the emergency shower reach very high temperatures. According
to ANSI / ISEA Z358.1-2014, which is the standard of emergency showers, it is
accepted that water temperature shall be between 16-38 °C for human health. The
temperature of the water of the emergency shower is a requirement of the
standards which must always be kept ready to use in case of an emergency.
and non-plumbed emergency showers are also divided as indoor or outdoor use.
Units suitable for outdoor use should be the system which are scald-proof for
hot climates and freeze-proof for cold climates.
remaining in the pipes of the emergency shower can quickly heat up in hot
climates, scald the user while using, and in cold climates, freezing water can
clog the pipe and cause the shower not to operate. In cases where such risks
are present, self-draining systems equipped with specially designed anti-freeze
or anti-scald valves should be preferred. In the pipes of emergency showers,
water will not be heated or freezed in the pipe after use with these special
valves. The systems are completely mechanical and do not require any electrical
protection can also be provided in emergency showers designed as insulated and trace
heated. The purpose of trace heating is not to provide tepid water, but to
ensure that the water remaining in the pipe does not freeze at up to -40 ° C ambient
temperature. A wiring connection is needed for these systems. Freezing is
prevented by heating the pipes by electical cables. With the help of a safety thermostat,
the water in the pipe is prevented from overheating and causing harm to the
Solutions that provide tepid water and systems with anti-freeze / scald valves should not be implicated with each other.
Providing proper tepid water
with hot water also causes the clothing to stick on the user‘s skin. Therefore,
there is a need to cool the stored water in hot climates. For this reason, a
low capacity (2.5 – 3.5 kW) water chiller unit should be used with the tank
showers. These systems can be used safely at up to +55 ° C ambient temperature.
Passive Cooling Technology
summer, by taking advantage of the coldness of the night, it is aimed to keep
the water below 38 °C which is required by the standard in daytime. In cases
where the night temperature is on average +5 °C, passive cooling allows the
daytime water temperature to be maintained at the desired levels. It is a
maintenance-free technology and if the ambient temperature is around calculated
levels at night, the water temperature in the tank can be kept constant below
38 °C in accordance with the standard during the day. This system is equipped
by a heat exchanger, which is made of high thermal conductivity material (can
be stainless steel or aluminum) placed on the water tank.
The weight of cold water is always heavier than hot water because it is low in volume and high in density. As the volume of the water increasing temperature increases, the density decreases. For that reason, thanks to the large heat exchanger surface area in contact with the air, the water cooled in the heat exchanger goes down to the lower tank because it is heavier and works by the logic of cooling the water in the tank from below and re-entering the hot water remaining on the tank again. During the night, this top-down, bottom-up hot-cold water circulation continues. During the daytime, the heated water in the heat exchanger with ambient temperature are lighter and the water does not go down to the tank, and in hot weather, cooled tank at night can be maintained within the range of standards required with the great help of the insulation of the tank. Overhead sun canopies are a kind of passive cooling method. All cooling operations without using electricity are called passive cooling.
In order to
use emergency showers equipped with electrical equipment in hazardous areas,
the unit must be ATEX (Ex-Proof) certified. The latest addition to our ISTEC®
Showers & Eyebaths range of emergency showers is ATEX Zone 1, 2
Certification according to new IEC TS 60079-46:2017 standard, Explosive
atmospheres – Part 46: Equipment assemblies. This is a new Atex standard.
our emergency showers with its own ATEX certification including all its
accessories such as chiller, audible and visual alarm, flow switch etc., not
only with the individual certificates of the components.
does not need to be Atex (Ex-Proof) certified if it is to be used in a safe
area. It should be ensured that all emergency showers with electrical
accessories to be installed in hazardous environments must be ex-proof (Atex or
equivalent certified) and have appropriate certificates and protection levels
according to the conditions of the area to be installed and the risk analysis
to be performed.
materials of the emergency shower (emergency shower, eye wash, water tank,
cabin, etc.) must be determined according to the conditions in the area where the
units will be used according to the types of chemicals in the workplace. For instance, in the food industry that is
kept hygienically clean, it is recommended to use 304 grade stainless steel,
316 grade stainless steel material is recommended in workplaces where hazardous
and corrosive substances are likely to be exposed, such as offshore,
pharmaceutical or chemical industries.
Overhead Water Tank Showers
Placing the water tanks on top of the emergency shower with the help of a cabin/frame allows the flow to be obtained by using gravity and providing the flows required by the standards. Otherwise, installing the tank on the ground will require the use of an additional pump / booster. This means extra energy consumption and cost.
Emergency showers with overhead water tank can be tailored with insulated cabins or doors according to end-user’s requirements. Enclosed insulated cabin and door systems are preferred especially in cold climates. If the outside temperature is low, which may harm the health of the user after washing, it may be necessary to install a separate space heater inside the cabinet. All these optional equipment such as space heater, audible and visual alarm which warns when the shower is being used, lighting for the cabin, and E-Gsm device which sends SMS to the mobile phone when the shower is used must be determined and projected according to the needs of the end-user.
Importance of Emergency Showers and
showers are occupational safety and first aid equipments that are required by
law in the workplaces determined by the regulations according to the work and /
or their employees. Although the usage rates of first aid equipments are low by
nature, it is vital to keep it ready for activation when needed. An emergency
shower will not be needed for months or even years, except when it is activated
for weekly checks as per ANSI standard. But a worker who really needs an
emergency shower will be sure that the emergency shower is going to do its duty
well and this will be vital for the
worker. It would not be a wrong example to compare emergency showers to a car’s
air bag. The airbag is expected to deploy in the event of a dangerous accident
and save lives. The air bag may not be
needed at all during the life of the car, but it is vital that it does its duty
in case of actually needed.
important issue is that vital data such as the level of water in the water
tank, the temperature of the water, any malfunction in the system, whether or
not the shower is used should be monitored from time to time by responsible
persons such as facility managers, workplace authorities and occupational
safety experts. It is especially important to monitor the situation of multiple
emergency showers located in a large facility scattered in different
to ANSI / ISEA Z358.1-2014 standard, it is mandatory to check the emergency
showers by activating once a week. For this reason, it may be necessary to keep
records of the data such as the number of times the emergency shower works,
when it works, and a system to report if necessary. In such cases, by
installing a special SCADA system for emergency showers, remote monitoring and
controllable solutions of emergency showers can be provided. SCADA systems,
which is an automation system, is an abbreviation formed from the first letters
of the words Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition and is used for systems
that perform supervisory control and data collection processes. These systems
offer the advantage of reliably, safely and economically performing the
functions of collecting and controlling information about emergency showers
from a central control point over a large geographical area in the workplace /
facility. An interface specially created for the systems via HMI (Human-Machine
Interface) panel by authorized persons can monitor the existing data
simultaneously and control the system manually when necessary.
emergency showers to the network via cable will be costly and inefficient in
large geographical areas.
communication modems allow up to 10 kilometers of communication in the open
areas. If there is an obstacle in front of the emergency shower, the distance
is shortened according to the structure of the obstacle.
the automation system, an authorized person in the facility gets information in
any emergency and can intervene in the system immediately. For example, when
the water temperature increases above a certain level, the water chiller should
automatically switch on. If the thermostat on the system fails, the chiller may
not automatically switch on. In such an emergency, the Scada system warns that
the water temperature exceeds a certain level and the system can be intervened
or the chiller unit can be manually activated remotely.
emergency shower is designed for different purposes and may not replace another.
Standard heated or cooled systems with water tank may not always be the right
choice for a workplace’s needs. Our company is fully capable to offer, design
and produce specially designed tailored systems and engineering solutions for
emergency showers ready to operate efficiently and correctly in accordance with
the international standards and following this, controlling and intervening in
the system when necessary, is vital for occupational safety.
Our main goal is to bring the end-user and/or distributor to the solution in the most economical way by providing point shot solutions to the demands of the user and by changing the configurations of our new generation emergency showers. We prevent the customer from paying a fee for an unnecessary feature that is not required by the user. It is the right choice for your facility, your employees and your safety to work with an experienced and competent manufacturer who value human health, manufacture in accordance with international harmonised standards regarding these type of serious equipment such as emergency showers.
Since 1979, we produce equipments for; OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY, FIRST AID & CIVIL DEFENSE and FIRE & CBRN & PERSONAL PROTECTION.
Our headquarters and factory are located in Ankara. With our network of distributors spread all over the country and worldwide we distribute our best and high quality service to customers in the shortest time. Our company has TS EN ISO 9001 Quality Certificate. All our products are certified according to international standards. With the high quality products we manufacture, our export sales increase day by day.
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