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The Journal for Employee Protection
The Journal for Employee Protection
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Gas leak detection methods became a concern after the effects of harmful gases on human health were discovered.
Before modern electronic sensors, early detection methods relied on less precise detectors. Through the 19th and early 20th centuries, coal miners would bring canaries down to the tunnels with them as an early detection system against life threatening gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane. The canary, normally a very songful bird, would stop singing and eventually die in the presence of these gases, signalling the miners to exit the mine quickly.
Before the development of electronic household carbon monoxide detectors in the 1980s and ’90s, carbon monoxide presence was detected with a chemically infused paper that turned brown when exposed to the gas. Since then, many technologies and devices have been developed to detect, monitor and alert the leakage of a wide array of gases, especially in a confined space work environment.
Many workplaces contain spaces that are considered ‘confined’ because their configurations hinder the activities of employees who must enter, work in, and exit them. A confined space has limited or restricted means for entry or exit, and it is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.
In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) uses the term ‘permit-required confined space’, or permit space to describe a confined space that has one or more of the following characteristics:
• Contains or has the potential to contain a hazardous atmosphere • Contains a material that has the potential to engulf an entrant • Has walls that converge inward or floors that slope downward and taper into a smaller area which could trap or asphyxiate an entrant • Contains any other recognised safety or health hazard, such as unguarded machinery, exposed live wires, or heat stress
OSHA has a standard, 1910.134, which is the impetus for using a multi-gas monitor to perform atmospheric testing prior to entering a confined space.
When monitoring the atmosphere in a confined space, there are several important issues that need to be considered, reviewed, and managed. One of the major issues centres on air quality and what you are breathing, both prior to entry and during occupation of a confined space.
You need to know what the oxygen content of the atmosphere is and whether there are explosive or toxic gases that could threaten the safety of the environment or, perhaps more importantly, your life. When properly used and maintained, gas detection monitors will protect both.
Not only do you need to monitor the atmosphere of your confined space to protect your life, but also OSHA requires you to do it.
To understand exactly what a confined space is, let’s look at OSHA’s definition:
Confined space: 1. Has adequate size and configuration for employee entry 2. Has limited means for access or egress 3. Is not designed for continuous employee occupancy
A few examples of confined spaces are: • Underground vaults • Aeronautical fuel tanks • Confined space entry on drilling rigs • Sewers • Silos • Coal mines • Underground gas and electric lines • Pipelines • Tanks • Storage bins • Manholes • Pits • Process vessels
The term permit-required confined space as defined by OSHA is a confined space that meets the definition of a confined space and has one or more of the characteristics outlined earlier.
Once you have identified your work area as a confined space, you should then refer to either OSHA’s recommendations, or regulations for the country of choice for monitoring the air quality of your space.
As an example, confined and enclosed space operations have a greater likelihood of causing fatalities, severe injuries and illnesses than any other type of shipyard work. Hazards include fires and explosions, falls, and hazardous atmospheres.
OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.146 (c) subsection (C) states: “Before an employee enters the space, the internal atmosphere shall be tested, with a calibrated direct-reading instrument, for the following conditions in the order given: (1) oxygen content, (2) flammable gases and vapors, and (3) potential toxic air contaminants.”
Additionally, subsection (D) states: “There may be no hazardous atmosphere within the space whenever any employee is inside the space.”
This standard is the impetus for using a multi-gas monitor to perform atmospheric testing prior to entering a confined space. It also clearly dictates that continuous monitoring of the space must take place for as long as the confined space is inhabited.
If hazards are found in the space through the utilisation of a multi-gas monitor, OSHA standard 29 CFR 1910.146 (c) subsection (E) must be followed. This standard reads: “Continuous forced air ventilation shall be used, as follows: (1) An employee may not enter the space until the forced air ventilation has eliminated any hazardous atmosphere; (2) The forced air ventilation shall be so directed as to ventilate the immediate areas where an employee will be present within the space and shall continue until?all employees have left the space; (3) The air supply for the forced air ventilation shall be from a clean source and may not increase the hazards of the space.”
When choosing a monitor to test and continuously monitor a confined space, you should take into consideration several attributes of the monitor and be sure to accessorise accordingly.
First and foremost, you will need a multi-gas monitor that is capable of monitoring for all of the OSHA-required hazards: oxygen, flammable gases, and potential toxic air contaminants that may be present as a result of the processes that take place in or around the confined space.
Next, you should consider a monitor that has either an internal or external pump that is capable of properly drawing the air sample back to your fresh air monitoring point during initial testing of the space. The monitor also should have the capability of continuously monitoring the occupied space to ensure the workers’ continued safety.
Other equipment such as sampling probes, durable carrying cases, and rechargeable batteries can be complementary accessories as well.
Most of today’s monitors are equipped with bright visual and loud audible alarms to warn of potential hazards. An internal data logger will help you to comply with the documentation of your spaces’ hazards. A data logger is a device containing a microprocessor that stores information electronically taken from an instrument. The levels of all hazards being monitored can be downloaded from the data logger to a computer or printed for reference and recordkeeping activities.
An instrument docking system can also be a plus when working in confined space applications. These systems provide the user with a myriad of beneficial capabilities, including the following functions:
1. Automated calibration/bump testing – OSHA mandates in 29 CFR 1910.146 that the only way to safely detect a hazardous atmosphere is with a “calibrated direct reading instrument.” Automated calibration and full docking systems often provide single-button calibration options to help meet the OSHA requirements. Workers no longer have to calibrate their monitors manually.
2. Recordkeeping – Docking systems automatically record and store valuable information such as bump and calibration records, as well as recordkeeping of all hygiene information stored. Data logging information is logged and stored through the event-logging mode, which records information when an incident or event occurs.
3. Recharging – Docking systems can also be used to charge monitors when not in use. This will ensure the monitor is fully charged the next time it is used.
4. Instrument diagnostics – Automated maintenance systems may include technology that provides a means for diagnosing potential problems with your monitor, such as low or marginal sensor life and date of the last calibration, along with the number of days until the next calibration is due.
Some manufacturers of gas monitors also provide hands-on training to ensure that you use and maintain your instruments properly. These courses are designed to educate participants about the basics of proper gas monitor use and management. When looking for hands-on training, some of the more valuable topics you will want to learn about include:
1. Hazardous gases – Learning the common gases encountered in confined spaces, including information about deficient (asphyxiation hazard) or enriched (explosive hazard) oxygen levels, will prove valuable in your overall understanding of a confined space.
2. Permit-required confined spaces – Reviewing the regulations enacted under 29 CFR 1910.146 and learning how to utilise gas detection to meet the requirements will ensure compliance with OSHA’s mandates.
3. Sensor technology – Learning about and understanding the various types of sensors used in confined spaces, such as catalytic diffusion, electrochemical, and infrared sensors, will help you make an educated decision on instrument/sensor selection for your particular application.
4. Instrument review – Learning about the functions and applications of complete lines of portable instruments, including calibration stations and docking systems, will further help with purchasing decisions.
5. Calibration and maintenance – Learning to properly calibrate and care for your instruments and how to troubleshoot instrument problems and replace sensors and battery packs will give you the knowledge to be self sufficient in maintaining your instrument inventory.
6. Hands-on operation – Learning to use a variety of portable instruments will give you the confidence to operate your instruments at peak efficiency to make certain you are protected at all times.
Another very important aspect of managing your confined space gas monitor programme is the proper management of ongoing maintenance. The best way to be certain your monitor is in peak shape is by utilising the services of a manufacturer’s Factory Service Centre.
Using factory-trained service technicians ensures the servicing of your monitor is performed by individuals qualified to work on it. Some of the key services to look for are:
• In-house calibration and service – This service will ensure your confined space monitor is calibrated and serviced by professionals
• Maintenance and warranty repair – Performing routine maintenance and utilising warranty repair services are critical to keeping your monitor fleet up and running
• On-site mobile service and repair – Where available, this service will bring an authorised technician to your site to perform maintenance and repair service on the spot, eliminating downtime
• Instrument rentals and leasing – Having the option to lease or rent an instrument proves very beneficial, especially in cases of shutdowns or planned maintenance where you may need more instruments than you own in-house to perform the work in a timely manner
The combination of the right instrument, the proper training, and the services that complement your monitors will help make managing your confined space programme easier. For a full understanding of the OSHA confined space monitoring requirements, log on to www.osha.gov and search for the standard by number (29 CFR 1910.146), or use any of the other International Standards that are available.
Confined spaces safety standards address the health and safety of individuals in confined spaces. This includes the overall management and minimisation of time spent within a confined space, as well as the recommended training, equipment and procedures for the various environments internationally.
Some standards which may be of interest are listed below.
ASTM D4276-02(2007) Standard Practice for Confined Area Entry
ANSI/ASSE Z117.1-2009 Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces
ANSI/ASSE Z117.1-2009 Package Safety Requirements for Confined Spaces with Comparison Document for versions 1995, 2003 and 2009
ANSI/ISA 92.04.01 Part I-2007 Performance Requirements for Instruments Used To Detect Oxygen-Deficient/Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres
AS 2865-2009 Confined spaces (Australian Standard)
AS/NZS 2865:2001 Safe working in a confined space (Australian Standard)
ASTM F1764-97(2007) Standard Guide for Selection of Hardline Communication Systems for Confined-Space Rescue
ASTM F2209-10 Standard Guide for Training of Level I Land Search Team Member
ASTM F2685-07 Standard Guide for Training of a Level II Land Search Team Member
ASTM F2751-09 Standard Guide for Training of Support Level Land Rescue Team Member (LRT-Support) Member
ASTM F2752-09 Standard Guide for Training for Level I Rope Rescue (R1) Rescuer Endorsement
CGA P-39-2008 Oxygen-Rich Atmospheres
CGA SB-15-2009 Managing Hazards In Confined Work Spaces During Maintenance, Construction, And Similar Activities
CGA SB-2 Oxygen-Deficient Atmospheres. Published on 11/9/2007, Edition 6.
CSA Z1006-10 Management of work in confined spaces
NFPA 1006-2008 NFPA 1006: Standard for Technical Rescuer Professional Qualifications, 2008 Edition
ANSI/ASABE S607 OCT2010 Ventilating Manure Storages to Reduce Entry Risk
ISA RP92.04.02 Part II-1996 Installation, Operation, and Maintenance of Instruments Used to Detect Oxygen-Deficient/Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres
JIS T 8201:2010 Oxygen deficiency indicator (Foreign Standard)
Published: 21st Jan 2013 in Health and Safety International
Cynthia L Roth
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